Fighting back against wrinkles is not an easy task, especially since most manufacturers only want to earn money, and guarantee no results. Hydroxatone says that their Instant Wrinkle Filler is a wonderful choice when it comes to treating wrinkles quickly. Thanks to Hydroxatone Instant Wrinkle Filler, the fine lines and wrinkles can disappear, and it is a great quick fix for those who do not have months to wait for results. On the other hand, the usual skin problems are imperfections, and these fillers take care of that, creating a wonderful, glowing skin. In order to get expected results, it is recommended to use this filler on clear skin, and using the AM/PM cream as well gives a winning combination. Although not every Hydoxatone review can be positive, it is crucial to understand that everyone has a different skin type, and some women will see results in 24 hours, and other after couple of weeks. The efficiency of this product comes from micro beads that can fill out the wrinkles, and Hyaluronic Acid that takes care of fine lines all over the skin. Overall, this product may not work for everyone, but most women said it made them look over ten years younger.
Celtixa As A Way To Get Rid Of Stretch Marks
The stretch marks can happen to any woman, for many reasons, but they usually become problem during pregnancy, or when someone loses or gains weight quickly. Once they appear, it is almost impossible to get rid of them, but luckily, there is Celtrixa on the market. Hydroxatone review of Celtrixa says that many women were afraid that they would give too much money on useless products, so they ordered trials, and that was the best move in their lives.
Celtrixa is a clinically tested product, so it is guaranteed that it can reduce the stretch marks by 66%. On the other side, it is also a great way to prevent appearance of new stretch marks, since its appliance leaves the skin smooth and gives it more elasticity, but that is all possible thanks to Regestril, its main ingredient. In order to see first results in about two weeks, one must apply the product twice a day, and massage the area in a circular motion. Although Celtrixa usually has women as target customers, men can also have stretch marks, not so often as women, but in case of sudden weight gain, their skin can crack and even burn. Almost every Hydroxatone review shows that Celtrixa is worth trying, especially since the customer gets the risk free guarantee. Click here for more information.
Experiencing Wrinkles and the Hopes That Wrinkle Creams Provide
Having been in the business of marketing for a number of years is an opportunity that I will always be thankful for. But lately, it’s also this career that is making me feel how I badly need to find the best wrinkle cream available today. Since this job requires me to face people from all walks of life every day, looking good is deemed necessary. Although I am still young and actually the youngest in our company, I cannot deny that fine lines are beginning to emerge on my skin, most especially on my facial area. I am also starting to have skin discoloration and blemishes. Knowing that I have all these skin imperfections makes me less active at work. It is affecting my confidence and it prevents me from focusing on my job. It also has an impact with the way I interact with my colleagues. But since I am in the marketing industry, I know very well that many products are available nowadays that can help resolve skin issues associated with aging. I am hopeful that one of these days, I will be able to find a wrinkle cream brand that will eliminate my wrinkles and get rid of my skin imperfections in no time.
If you have ever experience your computer malfunctioning or crashing and you need help then you understand just how confusing and frustrating this experience can be. You maybe sitting there one minute about to download the latest song or send your friend a email when all of a sudden your computer begins functioning weird. Now functions like getting on the internet or opening a word document take more than a minute to execute. This occurs usually because of two different scenarios either your computer has been internally damaged thanks to malware or it has been externally damaged thanks to a electrical surge or a spill.
In cases of an internal issue such as malware these usually occur when a virus has either been uploaded to the computer from another electronic device or has been downloaded from the internet via a unsecured website. External issues such as dropping the computer tower and spilling a liquid on it can cause just as much damage to hard ware of a computer as a internal issue. Regardless of the reason it is important to have some back up solutions just in case you experience a complete loss of power. A flash drive is a great cheap data recovery solution that can help you back up most of your computer’s information. You could literally take all the information off of one computer and place it on another one without risking any infections on the new computer.
What Causes Hard Drive Crashes?
System failure is one of the worst experiences a computer user can have especially if a back up system or tools are not in place. In most cases a severe malfunction in your computer is the result of some sort of damaged done to the hard drive. Your hard drive is responsible for helping your computers save documents and files. Your hard drive also keeps files that are responsible for keeping your computer’s system in order, so once your hard drive has been compromised it is a very clear indication that your computer is likely to fail. Viruses, Trojans and spy-ware all can affect the internal components of your computer making simple process like starting up your computer a nightmare.
External issues include power surges and spills that can cause your computer to short out. It’s important to buy tools that can help you back up your computer system and important files. An external hard drive as well as flash drive are great data recovery solutions that can help you recover your information. There are plenty of different threats that your computer encounters every day. With the right materials you can back up all the information on your computer.
Usually, when you go to receive medical care from a given institution or doctor, you may be required to have a comprehensive insurance cover. The services which you are given will in many circumstances be covered by your medical insurance depending of course on the agreement you signed for. The hospital, for example will carry out a medical billing process to have the company remit the necessary payment. Today, there are a number of institutions which will offer a convenient medical billing course for the purposes of helping you learn all there is to know to enable you properly execute your duties in the hospital’s medical billing department.
A medical billing course today is an important requirement which many employers will look out for when recruiting people to carry out the tasks of medical billing. Hence, you will be rendered a lot more competitive when you have taken the time to go for such training. Also, you will have the right skills by the time you will be done with the course. Usually, coding is a challenging part of medical billing which then means that you will leave the institution well-placed to do your duties. Hence, if you have decided that this is the work you would like to do, you need to seriously consider taking up a medical billing course.
A number of people who have used the snoring pillow have noticed some improvements in using the item. One of them is that they were able to be relieved from the problem of snoring. Since it also encourages sideways sleep, it reduces chances of someone choking as they sleep especially when they suffer from colds, flu or coughs. The pillow has been medically proven to promote a healthier night sleep while at the same time creating a relatively alert day as good sleep is known to make people alert and ready to face a day with more vigor.
Using snoring pillows is encouraged by medics, as it has no negative side effects. It also has no prescription which needs keenness on a user’s part. Unlike medicine which has a prescription to be adhered to fully, the only hustle with the pillow is that its case has to be kept clean and the pillow size has to be maintained. This makes it an ideal option for many, including children. The sturdy yet soft nature of the pillow allows one to experience true, deep, rest, giving one a restive night. Meaning that all the people around you will sleep without the noise, you too will feel no guilt at having to keep people awake with the offensive noise.x
Alternatives For The Snoring Pillow
Of course, snoring pillows are easy to use as they offer the right posture to a snorer thereby reducing the noise from them. At the same time, getting the right posture which is sleeping by the side is enough to keep the snoring problem away. There are those who prefer to sleep on their back because then, they are comfortable. If that is the cause of snoring, it could be controlled by developing the habit of sleeping sideways. Habits are never born, they are developed. The earlier a snorer sleeps on their sides, the better.
However, there have been cases where sideways sleeping still does not help. This calls for other snoring solutions, not necessarily snoring pillows. One available methods of controlling snoring is using anti chin straps. When they are used, they hold up the chin while one is asleep. The sling goes round the head while the other end holds the jaw into position to stop the mouth from opening during sleep. Then there is the mouth piece which is inserted into the mouth to hold the tongue into position as people sleep. When the tongue is retained into the right position, the airwaves are left open to allow easy flow of air in and out of the lungs.
There are many techniques to stop the panic attacks that are published on different sites on the net. These techniques are helpful enough. One of these is the AWARE technique, one way to help you on how to stop panic attacks. The ‘A’ stands for ‘accept the situation or anxiety’. You do need to fight against it. The ‘W’ stands for ‘watch the situation or anxiety coming’. If you can just imagine that you are someone outside looking in, you can understand that situation better. The second ‘A’ stands for ‘act as normal as you can’. You need not stop at anything like panic attacks. To a stop panic attack can now be possible. You will learn that panic attacks can get bored, too, if you just keep on ignoring it. The ‘R’ stands for ‘repeating the same mentioned steps’ until you can get the relaxation you need. And the ‘E’ stands for ‘expecting the best’, which means that you now know how to stop panic attacks. Once you fee l like you are going to have a panic attack, you must remember the AWARE technique. This way, you can stop the panic attacks from recurring. Plus, you can spread the word that you can now face it alone since you already know about preventing panic attacks by yourself.
Probable Methods On How To Stop Panic Attacks
Panic attacks can render you helpless when they strike without warning. The first reaction of the attacks is all about fear regardless of the number of times you may have experienced them. However, several ways on how to stop panic attacks can help provide a solution to this vice. Nevertheless, this comes with understanding and knowledge of the signs and symptoms of the attacks not leaving out the causes too. The first and initial step in managing the attacks is by being capable to recognize the symptoms that come with it. They may include sweating, chest and stomach pains, hyperventilation, smothering sensation, depersonalization among others. Although the symptoms can be frightening, they are not that harmful. Imagined danger which the mind perceives is the reason why the symptoms get displayed. After realizing that they do not harm you can actually now set down on the various steps to combat them.
The second thing you need to know on how to stop panic attacks is getting familiar with the causes. They obviously occur because they are triggered by a certain factor within or outside the body. Stress is the most common due to the unpredictable events in life. They may be genetic, phobias, medical, abuse of substances or even because of past trauma. People suffer from the attacks because of their incapability of them to contain stress. After getting familiar with the causes and the symptoms, you can follow the right steps or take the necessary precautions to fight panic attacks. You can actually avoid the objects or situations that trigger them in the first place. Three major methods that can help you stop them include; the relaxation technique, counseling and therapy procedures and by medication. However, when taking these steps on how to stop panic attacks you should maintain a positive approach.
A Diverse Approach Towards Panic Attacks
The cognitive behavior therapy is the very best of the ways on how to stop panic attacks. It has always worked to the best of the patients and very many of the patients have moved on from the panic attacks and never gone back to the same problem. The therapists involved will provide a more rapid outcome on how to stop panic attacks for both types of panics: the unexpected panic and the situational panic. The cognitive behavior therapy has a three way approach that tackles the physical symptoms, the in accurate thinking as well as the problematic behaviors that happen to cause the panic.
With such a diverse approach, you rest assured of having the best way on how to stop panic attacks. This is an approach that very many people are not aware of, and that is the reason very few people do not know how to stop panic attacks rather they just beat around the bush treating the symptoms of the panic. There are also some cognitive behavior therapy books that can help you tackle the problem minus the expert. If you have panic attacks, you can read the book and know how to stop panic attacks without any assistance. Check out this site for more good information.
The ways to a stop panic attack can be tried and tested. But whether they can be of help on how to stop panic attacks altogether there is nothing absolute as it also depends on the person. There are just those types of a person that is clinging to the one who can protect him/her. To stay with people who can protect you can be helpful. Especially, if those people love you and do not want anything to come to harm you. This way, you can stop the panic attacks from happening. The question though lies on how to stop panic attacks for good. Well, if you are very confident that you stay with people who can protect you, there could be a chance that you can eliminate those panic attacks. However, the people who can protect you may not always be there for you for some reasons. So, how can you face the problem on your own? This can be asked afterwards. You can research on things that can help you stop the panic attacks from enslaving you. The Internet is a very rich international library that you can count on. You should have the power to face a doctor or psychiatrist for this reason, too, if necessary. Either way, you will learn about panic attack remedies, which can be really crucial when the pressure is on.
Panic Attacks Can Be Harmless
Panic attacks are not well known by very many people. The panic attacks frequently get the victims un aware and most people are left wondering how to stop panic attacks. There are many people who get the whole aspect wrong and they end up treating the symptoms. Due to that, the panic attacks will frequent and be a normal thing. People need to be informed on how to stop panic attacks and this might help the situation. It is imperative to note that panic attacks are not a disease that can be treated by use of drugs rather it needs an expert to take you through an entire healing process.
One might end up feeling very desperate in times when you are in panic and there are very few people are enlighten on how to stop panic attacks. To some extent, the panic attacks can come over due to some reason that might need medication but it is worth mentioning again that the panic attacks do not need medical attention rather they need psychological attention. Panic attacks are very harmless but the side effects can have some physical sensation on you. Learning the right steps on how to stop panic attacks is the only way out of such a problem.
How To Stop Panic Attacks Among Children
Every parent needs to study on how to stop panic attacks among the children. Panic attacks among the children have become a normal occurrence especially in schools all over the world. Parents are putting much pressure on their children so that they can perform the best in class work. The growth experienced in the modern world has also played a big role in causing pressure amongst the students to excel in studies in order to survive in the employment world.
To stop panic attacks amongst the children caused by such situations, the first thing you need to do is to encourage your children and reward them anytime they perform well or progress positively toward success. This will make them more relaxed as they go about their classes. You should also try as much as possible to avoid any stressful environments for your children. This causes a lot of anxiety on them which later leads to panic attacks. It is very vital for you to gather all the information on how to stop panic attacks in the US. Panic attacks come with different symptoms. Some of the symptoms may be unknown causing more harm to the children if not discovered on time. Always prepare your children before you subject them to any change.
You can’t stand it. Your team just lost the chance to get into the playoffs. Your season is over, and the other team is dancing with delight because they move on to the next round. You want to yell, “Hey, you got lucky!”–and then you feel like crying, you’re so upset. Let the tears flow! Haven’t you seen professional athletes cry on the bench over a big loss? It’s one of the healthiest things you could do. A good laugh or a good cry can be as good for you as regular exercise. In fact, they have similar health benefits.
Workout for the Body and the Brain
A good belly laugh can put your body through a decent workout-depending on how funny the joke is, of course. Actually, a simple laugh requires coordinating 15 facial muscles alone! That certainly gives new meaning to the term funny face. In addition, blood pressure and heart rate rise during laughter, increasing circulation. This gets more oxygen and nutrients to tissues and moves important immunities through your body, enhancing its ability to fight infection. Add a joke a day to the apple a day.
In fact, many hospitals have added humor programs to their services, including humor libraries and something called a Comedy Cart, which offers humor materials to patients in their own room.
In a medical journal, Dr. William F. Fry Jr., of Stanford University Medical School, writes that laughter also helps patients with chronic breathing problems such as emphysema because the change in breathing pattern caused by laughter aids ventilation and clears mucus. Laughing and chortling, he says, accelerate the exchange of fresh and old air, and, as a result, increase blood oxygen levels, which the body needs to maintain health. Fry also points out that while the effect of humor on the central nervous system is not completely known, the brain activity that stimulates laughter does enhance alertness and memory.
Psychologist Peter Derks and his colleagues at the College of William and Mary in Virginia studied how the brain stimulates laughter. Humor begins with brain arousal. When you hear a setup line to a joke, the left side of your brain begins to process the words. Then the activity shifts to the frontal lobe of your brain, an area associated with emotions. Milliseconds later, before you hear the punch line, the right side brain’s functions coordinate with the left side’s to find the pattern; in other words, to get the joke. Finally, at the height of activity, the brain gets the joke, and laughter begins. Humor helps the brain work as a unit.
Think about the last joke you heard and how quickly you laughed, and that will give you an idea of how swiftly your brain is working. Derks speculates that this process, done repeatedly, may increase one’s awareness of an immediate situation and, in the long-run, sharpen the mind.
On the other hand, people aren’t eager to get together for a good cry. When a group of your friends decides to go to a movie, chances are no one says, “Hey, let’s go see a really sad one and cry a lot.” Most likely you see a lot of comedies. And who wouldn’t prefer to laugh rather than cry? Do you know anyone who likes to shed those dreaded tears? Some feel crying makes them look like a baby; others think they look weak, especially in political situations.
In fact, crying can make you feel better and stronger because when you cry, you’re letting go of emotion that’s weighing you down. Dr. George Guthrey of the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center says crying is “as potent as laughter in providing physical and psychological relief to lighten our load in life.” It’s a release that actually lowers blood pressure and reduces emotional and muscle tension.
Dr. William H. Frey II, author of Crying: The Mystery of Tears, says that the ability to cry is one of those unique acts that distinguish us from other animals. Dr. Frey’s research suggests that tears contain chemicals that build up as a result of stress. Therefore, crying is simply a natural means of ridding the body of those chemicals.
He also found a connection between a particular hormone and the number of crying episodes. in Frey’s study, women cried four times more often than men. Frey speculates that the higher levels of a hormone called prolactin in women is a factor. Between the ages of 12 and 18, girls have 60 percent higher levels of prolactin than boys, and that’s when the differences in crying begin, according to Frey.
This study helps point out the physical source of tears. So when you feel yourself welling up, your body is telling you it’s time to let it out.
“I Laughed Until I Cried”
Most tears and laughter are spontaneous. They come without warning. But next time you find yourself crying or laughing, remember you’re not only doing what comes naturally, you’re also helping your body and mind. Look at it this way: When you laugh so hard you start to cry, you’re not just having a good time, you’re doing something healthful.
As survivors of severe brain injuries, even highly educated and successful people have to relearn simple tasks that help them get on with their lives.
The Institute for Cognitive Prosthetics, in Bala Cynwyd, Pa., uses custom computer programs to help head injury patients overcome very specific problems, such as prioritizing items on a list, remembering when to do certain things, and concentrating on the task at hand.
When Institute Director Elliott Cole saw patients struggling to organize their schedules using notebooks at a brain-injury center a decade ago, he saw the potential for computers and custom software to go way beyond the notebooks.
Like prosthetic arms and legs, these programs must be custom-fit. Because the cognitive process is so complicated, however, each patient needs to be present when a program is being built.
“Our computing environment is designed around the premise that 5 percent of our work is initial design and 95 percent is modification and enhancement of applications — our patients’ requirements are constantly changing,” said Cole, who built the first custom application in the early 1990s and has worked with 18 patients since.
“Because we work on one-of-a-kind systems, our computing environment must give us the ability to quickly modify our code,” he said. The institute uses the Clipper database application-development language, from Computer Associates International Inc., and 486-based PCs to rapidly build and modify applications.
Clipper has several advantages for the institute. “Our primary need is for a versatile programming language,” said Cole. Clipper generates about one-third the lines of C code, he said, making the source code easier to read and debug.
The institute works with patients who have stopped improving using traditional therapy, Cole said. When a new patient like recent injury victim Susana Aguilera comes in, Cole analyzes the activities that person wants to perform. “We study the way the individual performs the task, noting those subtasks that the individual can perform easily and those the individual can’t perform. When we find something the individual can’t do, we build a technology bridge over it,” he said.
The institute builds custom spreadsheets, word processors, schedulers, and other personal-productivity tools for patients who use desktop or notebook PCs. The newfound ability to use these tools often opens up a development bottleneck, enabling further productivity.
“For someone with a brain injury, the person is much less flexible, so the technology has to be able to adapt to the user,” Cole said. Many patients with cognitive problems need more structure, making software that presents multiple options difficult to deal with.
Clipper’s prototyping ability is essential for a growing number of applications — including those that enable people with physical and cognitive disabilities to use computers, said Ken Orr, president of Ken Orr Institute, in Topeka, Kan. “Fast programming allows developers to work around what people can’t do — you can’t model behavior, you have to see it. Clipper’s a super tool for that,” Orr said.
The institute’s development technique helped a woman who survived a devastating automobile accident assist in designing an application that helps her prioritize tasks.
Before the accident, the patient, who has a graduate education, could usually tell in what order to perform a list of tasks to complete them in a brief period of time.
“After her accident, if you gave her a short list, she couldn’t prioritize it,” Cole said. Yet she could prioritize tasks one at a time. The custom software allowed her to assign a priority to an item, then repaint the screen.
The patient herself came up with this solution, Cole said. “We sat down to design, and after 15 minutes she said, in essence, `Move out of the way, I have a set of ideas.’ And over the next half hour or so we banged out something that really would work for her.”
UCLA’s Computer Promoted Understanding of Physics Concepts (CPUPC) has continued to be a major tool for students looking to understand the basic principles of physics.
The software provides five separate experiments demonstrating the principles presented in the standard curriculum’s lectures and laboratories. Each experiment is further divided into a demonstration mode and a test/report mode. For example, one experiment illustrates mechanics principles using a bouncing ball. In the demonstration mode, students can vary the numerical parameters associated with the ball, such as initial velocity, vertical and horizontal components, or the presence or absence of air, and get a graphical representation of the impact of such variations. In the test mode, students are required to complete specific, assigned experiments and then are graded based on lab reports of their findings. “Here,” says Bercham, “they can’t play with all of the variables. We may change the value of the acceleration constant, for example, and then ask the student to calculate this unknown. Unlike in the demonstration mode, they can’t play with the widget that changes the constant.”
There is also a textual element to the simulations that contributes to the efficiency of conducting experiments, says Bercham. “If students forget a formula or principle, they can click on a field to open a window into the text from the relevant lecture. They can then go back to where they left off and just carry on the experiment.”
The software was developed using a network of workstations and servers from Sun Microsystems. The CPUPC application resides on a SPARCserver 670MP. Students can access it through 18 SPARCstation IPX and two SPARCstation 2 desktop workstations, networked via Ethernet and filesharing software. An additional SPARCstation IPX desktop workstation is used by professors for laboratory demonstrations in the lecture hall.
The developers chose to rely on workstations for the project because they felt that neither the Macintosh nor PC platform would be powerful enough to handle the real-time graphics required by the application. For example, says Bercham, in simulating a water tank, “we needed enough speed and power to show the water and what happens when you do something to it, such as launch a wave.” While other platforms may be able to handle this type of simulation, many would be incapable of providing real-time interaction. “It’s like making a movie, but you need to be able, at any time during the movie, to change something and see the result right away.” The challenge, he says, is a function of the fact that the images are not pre-calculated objects. “When you’re doing a simulation, you’re calculating on-the-fly. So, in fact, when we’re displaying, we’re still calculating at the same time.”
Examples of some of the other experiments include a simulation of sound, showing how a sound wave can reflect and refract and the impact of certain effects, such as the Doppler effect. Another depicts an oscillator and the impact of such variables as mass and friction. All of the experiments involve “real simulations,” says Bercham. “It’s not just a formula that we put into the computer. It’s a step-by-step reintegration of the equations.”
The benefits of such technology in the classroom range from the obvious to the not-so-obvious. In the former category, explains Bercham, “You can repeat an experiment as many times as you want; you can change the parameters, so you can kind of explore things at your own pace to understand what’s going on. Students feel freer to test their intuition because it’s not just a one-shot thing.”
Often, in a traditional lab setting, students are more concentrated on just getting through the requisite components of an experiment before the class ends. “I remember when I was a student,” says Bercham, “sometimes you were just following the instructor and trying to do things as quickly as possible because you knew you could only use the apparatus for a limited amount of time. So you were trying to carry out the experiment without really understanding it. With the computer, you can say, ‘OK, I don’t understand, let’s go back and do some reading and then come back and try again.’”
Additionally, students are often inhibited by laboratory apparatus, fearing that they may break something. “With a simulation, if something breaks, we don’t care. We just have to restart the program,” says Bercham. Access to the technology also provides students with computer experience they will likely need in a professional setting when they finish school.
A more unexpected benefit also emerged once the system had been implemented. “We were surprised at first, because a large percentage of the favorable responses [to the system] came from the female students,” says Bercham. It seems that many of the female students had less experience than their male counterparts with the hands-on type of activities that are required in a physics lab–”just things like taking a screwdriver to put a mass to a spring of an oscillator, or tying things together,” says Bercham. “With the computer, everyone’s equal. Once you know how to play with the mouse, you can take off.”
Why do humans cry? In a sense the answer is easy. We cry because of a child’s accomplishments. Because of a friend’s death. Because of a news story. Because of a piece of music. We cry in joy, grief, anguish, sorrow, frustration. Yet the real question is not why we cry, but rather what purpose our tears serve.
One of the earliest scientific theories concerning the purpose of tears was offered by Charles Darwin, who believed that tears were merely the result of an accidental stimulation of the lacrimal (ortear-producing) glands that took place when the muscles around the eyes contracted during periods of strong emotion. Since then, other theories have been proposed, including the notion that tears are a form of communication (serving to attract attention and elict support) and that tears, which contain anti-bacterial properties and which drain into the nose when they don’t simply evaporate or roll down the cheeks, help protect the upper respiratory tract from infection.
Yet there are problems with all these theories (if, for instance, tears are a form of communication why do people commonly cry when they are alone?) and none have been tested scientifically. In the 1970s, however, a new theory was proposed and its proponent, Minnesota biochemist William Frey, whose work is described in his book Crying: The Mystery of Tears (Mineapolis: Winston Press, 1985), actually set about testing his ideas.
Frey’s theory is that crying makes people feel better and is important to health because the shedding of tears removes “chemicals that build up as a result of emotional stress.” To test this, Frey’s first step was to chemically compare irritant tears with emotional tears. Irritant tears are those shed when something gets in your eye–onion vapors in the case of Frey’s subjects–whereas emotional tears are those shed in response to emotion (generated in Frey’s studies by sad movies). These comparisons showed that emotional tears are produced in greater volume than irritant tears and contain more protein. Later analyses showed that tears contained at least four different hormones involved in modulating the human reaction to stress.
One of these hormones is prolactin, which Frey says “is released in response to stress” and which he believes may actually help stimulate the production of tears. Prolactin, he points out, is found in higher blood concentrations in women than in men (it plays a role in milk production and in the regulation of menstrual cycles) and this may help explain why women cry more readily than men. Indeed, he says, one reason some people cry more easily than others may be that they are simply primed to do so by the presence in their bloodstreams of higher levels of prolactin. To support this belief Frey points to reports that drugs which reduce prolactin levels have been able to reduce or eliminate excessive or inappropriate crying episodes in some people whose unusual crying behavior is the result of neurological disease.
But Frey has yet farther to go in proving his theory. Most importantly, he has not shown that any chemical or hormone exists in the body at “high” levels prior to crying and at “low” levels after crying. Moreover, several researchers have now produced results which argue against Frey’s theory. For instance, it has been shown that crying in response to a hard drive failure doesn’t make much sense if you have access to a good data recovery company, such as this one (which is the opposite of what would be expected if crying has a salutary effect on stress, as suggested by Frey). And given the same exposure to other kinds of computer hardware stress, frequent criers have been found to have higher levels of tension, fatigue, hostility and similar mood states than those who cry infrequently. This is again contrary to what would be expected if Frey’s theory were correct.
But Frey’s work has been important nonetheless. He has stimulated other researchers to begin exploring the purpose of tears. And he has produced valuable information about “normal” crying behavior in adults. Based on crying diaries kept by over 300 healthy adults, Frey has found that the range of normal crying frequency for women is from not at all to almost daily (the average is 5.3 times a month) and for men from not at all to seven times a month (with a monthly average of 1.4). Episodes of watery eyes lasting about one minute are the most common form of crying for both men and women, followed in decreasing frequency by episodes of tears spilling over the eyelids and by overt sobbing.
Of even greater interest are Frey’s findings that most adults hold positive attitudes towards crying–their own and others’. Such information might have helped the man, reported in a recent magazine article, who broke into tears upon receiving word at work of the death of his cat. To hide his embarrassment, however, he told his co-workers that it was his mother who had died. Frey’s findings might have made him feel better, or perhaps he could simply have taken comfort in the words of Hubert Humphrey, who cried publicly several times in the year before his death and of it said, “A man without tears is a man without a heart.”